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Goat & Cow Milk Formula - A detailed guide of all the differences

March 10, 2021 9 min read

Goat & Cow Milk Formula - A detailed guide of all the differences

The challenges of being a new parent are numerous. Choosing the right formula for your little one is one of them, and it can be extremely difficult. Many parents struggle with the big selection of formula types available. 

The internet is full of pros and cons for each type of formula, the amount of information is enormous and can be overwhelming. Especially the difference between cow and goat milk formula can be confusing. Therefore, we have decided to create a detailed, well-structured and easily understandable guide on the differences of goat milk and cow milk-based formulas, based only on scientific findings.

Whether you are a parent struggling to decide on the right formula or simply interested in learning about all the differences, this guide is for you! Keep reading to find out more about goat milk vs cow milk formula.

P.S.: We know you may have a busy schedule and not much time to read, which is why we have included a short FAQ that should provide answers to all the important questions on goat milk vs cow milk formula that you may have. You can find it at the bottom of the article!


Cow baby formula 


There is no substantial difference between the preparation of goat milk formula vs cow milk formula. All European powdered infant formula should be mixed with water that has been boiled and then cooled down. It's always best to follow the detailed preparation instructions on the back of every box or can.


Consistency, color and taste

A notable difference between the two is that goat milk has a stronger flavor than cows milk. Especially if you are switching from cow milk to goat milk formula and your baby is used to the taste of cow milk, it may take a while to get adjusted to the new taste. This is completely normal and nothing to worry about. She/he will get used to it soon enough!

Goat milk is naturally homogenized. Meaning: Where fresh cow milk undergoes the man-made process of homogenization so that the fat does not separate and float to the top of the milk, goat milk naturally stays consistent and smooth. Additionally, goat milk has more of a pure white color. Cow milk contains more carotene, which makes the milk appear a bit more yellowish or cream white (goats have carotene in their diet as well, but they more efficiently convert it to vitamin A). Consistency wise the two are very similar.


 Baby formula feeding


Nutritional value

Both cow and goat milk are highly nutritious and can play an important role in the early development of your baby. Both types of milk contain proteins, carbohydrates (lactose), fats, micro-nutrients (vitamins and minerals) and water.

Having a more detailed look at both, they do differ in composition. Where goat milk has more calcium, potassium and vitamin A, cow milk contains more vitamin B12, selenium and folic acid. However, baby formulas are fortified to contain the perfect nutritional balance according to your baby's age: To mimic the composition of breast milk as closely as possible, all formulas (no matter whether goat or cow) include the perfect blend of minerals (such as calcium, magnesium, potassium) and vitamins (such as vitamin A, B12, K). This means that cow and goat milk formulas do not vary much in nutritional value.


healthy baby




The fat content in cow milk and goat milk is similar. Still, goat milk may be more easier to digest and gentler on the tummy. It naturally contains much smaller fat globules than cow milk, and therefore can be broken down more quickly in the digestive system. It has more medium-chain fatty acids than cow milk. These are more rapidly absorbed by the body than long-chain fatty acids, which are present in higher numbers in cow's milk.

Goat milk also naturally contains more essential Omega 6 fatty acids. In infant formula this doesn't play an important role, because it is among the ingredients that are being fortified in the composition. 



Goat milk and cow milk both contain a mixture of two main types of milk protein: Whey and casein. Casein is a bigger and more complex protein and makes up about 80% of the total protein structure of cow milk. In human breast milk, the ratio of casein to whey is much less. It varies during different lactation periods, from about 20:80 down to basically 50:50. This is why in infant formula, the protein ratio is adjusted by the manufacturers to mimic the composition of breast milk adjusted to the stages of life. Just as breast milk in early lactation periods, pre and stage 1 formulas contain a higher ratio of whey because it is easy on the tummy. Babies aren't born with a fully developed digestive system. Therefore, the contents of formula are always adjusted appropriately to the baby's age. Later stages (when your little one already has a more developed stomach that can process more complex foods) contain a higher content of casein.

Cow's milk contains various different allergens that can be seen by the body as "invaders" and thus cause allergic reactions. Goat milk protein, on the other hand, is virtually free of allergens. One particular allergen protein, the so-called alpha-S1 casein, is found in large amounts in cow's milk and can cause various reactions (see "Cow milk allergy" section below for more information on allergies). Goat's milk also contains this allergen, but in much smaller quantities, just 11% of the content in cow's milk. The presence of allergens in cow's milk should not be of any concern to you if your baby does not show any symptoms or negative reactions to cow milk. However, if you do suspect that there may be an issue with cow formula, goat milk formula can be an alternative because it has much less allergenic properties. 

A beneficial feature of goat's milk is that the protein is particularly easier to digest. In the stomach it forms a light and soft curd, which can be digested with ease and does not lay heavy in the stomach. Cow's milk protein, on the other hand, tends to form a heavy and firm curd. From this example alone, it is easy to see the digestive benefits of goat's milk protein.



Lactose is a type of sugar and the main carbohydrate found in cow and goat milk. Even though it is contained in both types of milk, the content in goat milk is lower. Therefore, goat milk can be more easily digestible and may be suitable for some babies that suffer from less severe milk intolerance. You can find more detailed information about this in the next section about milk intolerance.


baby and parents


Lactose Intolerance / Sensitivity

Babies who suffer from milk intolerance cannot fully digest lactose, the carbohydrates in cow's and goat milk. The result may be an uncomfortable feeling, bloating and flatulence or stomach pain after consuming milk or eating milk products. 

Lactose/ Milk intolerance is widespread throughout the world and a common diagnosis in children. Even though it is not a dangerous or life-threatening condition, the symptoms can be extremely uncomfortable and distressing. Therefore, parents of babies with the diagnosis or at the risk of suffering from milk intolerance are often in search of alternatives to cow milk baby formula. If you suspect that your baby is lactose intolerant, signs you can look out for include:

  • Excessive crying (especially after feeding)
  • Loose stool
  • Nausea / vomiting
  • Bloating and gas
  • Diarrhea

Lactose is the main carbohydrate in goat milk as well. However, the lactose content in goats milk is less compared to cow milk. Therefore, goat milk formula can be an alternative to cow milk formula for babies who suffer from milk intolerance and may be a good alternative to hypoallergenic formulas. It's always best to consult your pediatrician about which formula would be most appropriate if your little one doesn't seem to digest cow milk formula well.


baby formula feeding


Cow Milk Allergy

Cow milk is the most common cause of allergy. Where milk intolerance is a digestive issue caused by lactose (milk sugar), cow milk allergy is actually an immune response to the protein contained in milk. Symptoms of milk protein allergy usually develop between week 2 and 4 of age and almost always appear within the first 6 months of life. If you suspect a milk protein allergy in your child, indications you can look out for may include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Colitis
  • Abdominal pain (can be indicated via excessive crying or irritability, especially directly after feeding)
  • Eczema and rashes.

For children with cow milk allergy there are alternatives such as extensively hydrolyzed cow milk formula. In this type of formula, the protein is already broken down and can therefore be digested more easily. There have been several studies on the suitability for goat milk formula for babies with diagnosed cow milk allergy which found that goat milk is not an appropriate alternative. Even though the protein structures in cow and goat milk differ, cross-reactions between their allergens are likely to occur, and a large number of children that react to cows milk protein will also react to goat milk protein. Therefore if a baby is allergic to cow milk, it will most likely be allergic to goat milk as well. Make sure to choose organic quality to guarantee that your baby is only receiving the highest quality and most yummy and nutritious ingredients!



Takeaways: Cow and goat milk baby formula

Both cow and goat milk formula will fulfill your baby's nutritional needs to guarantee a safe and healthy start into life. Due to the fact that infant formulas try to imitate human breast milk as closely as possible, cow and goat milk baby formula are fortified in such a way that in the end, they have similar nutritional composition.

If your baby shows signs of discomfort or negative reactions to cow's milk (and no cow milk allergy is diagnosed), goat milk formula can be a good option, as it is more easily digestible and gentler on the tummy. However, before choosing a formula or switching formulas, you should always contact your pediatrician.

Our last, and maybe most important tip: Make sure to choose organic quality to guarantee that your baby is only receiving the highest quality and most delicious, nutritious and safest ingredients!


healthy baby


Quick recap questions:

Which is the healthiest milk for babies?

Both goat milk and cow milk infant formula are healthy and nutritious for your baby. We recommend choosing an all-organic formula likeHolle Formula to guarantee your baby is receiving the highest quality ingredients possible.


Is goat milk baby formula closer to breast milk?

Both cow and goat milk infant formula aim to be as closely composed to human breast milk as possible. All European formula manufacturers must follow strict guidelines as to which ingredients have to be included in what amount. Therefore, the milk in all formulas is being fortified with all the important nutrients and the nutritional value of goat milk and cow milk formulas is similar.


Is goat milk formula an alternative for babies with cow milk allergies?

No. For babies diagnosed with cow milk allergy, goat milk is not an option because it contains the same proteins as cow milk. However, babies that show some symptoms of discomfort or negative reactions to cow's milk (that do not have an allergy diagnosed), goat milk formula may be a good option. Due to several factors (different protein composition, more easily digestible fats) goat milk formula may be less allergic and easier on your baby's tummy.


Why is goat milk formula more easily digestible?

Goat milk can be absorbed by the body more easily for a few reasons. The main differences are protein and fat structure. Even though the fat content is similar in both types of milk, goat milk naturally contains smaller fat molecules and can be broken down more quickly. Where cow milk has more long-chain fatty acids, goat milk has a higher content of medium-chain fatty acids that can be digested more rapidly. As to proteins, the proteins in goat milk form more of a light and soft curd in the stomach, which can be digested with ease. Cow milk proteins form more of a harder and heavier curd. Additionally, cow's milk contains multiple allergens such as the protein alpha-s1-casein. Goat milk contains only 11% of the content of this protein compared to cow milk, and generally just very few allergens.


Is goat milk baby formula an alternative for babies with lactose intolerance?

It can be! Goat milk naturally contains less lactose and therefore may be a good alternative for babies with (not severe) milk intolerance. If you are suspecting lactose intolerance, before deciding to make a switch to goat milk formula you should see your pediatrician.


How do I know that my baby may not tolerate cow formula well?

Some symptoms to look out for are discomfort (irritability, excessive crying) after feeding, diarrhea, regular nausea and vomiting, bloating and gas. Even skin problems like eczema and rashes can be signs of a bad reaction to cow's milk.


What can I do if I suspect my baby doesn't tolerate cow formula?

It's always best to consult your pediatrician if you have any concerns about the formula you are using. A switch to goat milk based formula may be a good option for you if your baby is having some tummy problems or other undesirable reactions to cow's milk.


Can I switch from cow to goat milk formula?

Yes! You can easily switch between formula types. If you are switching from cow to goat it may take a bit longer for your baby to get adjusted, as goat milk has a stronger taste. But they will get used to it and enjoy it just as much soon enough! Please always consult your pediatrician first before switching formulas.


Goat milk baby formula


We hope this article helps you decide on which may be the best organic baby formula for your little one's organic start into life. If you need further guidance, please contact our customer support team. We are happy to help! Make sure to subscribe to our newsletter so you don't miss all the newest information about our formulas.

1 Response


August 14, 2021

There are a few inaccuracies. In infant formula both cows and goats fat globules are homogenised to the same size so there are no differences in formula.The lactose levels are adjusted to the same level regardless of whether it is cow or goat milk based. No mention under proteins that goat milk formula only contains A2 beta casein.

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